U dosadašnjem razvoju poljoprivrede, a posebno voćarstva, može se reći da je najmanje pažnje posvećeno jezgrovitim voćnim vrstama, gde spada i lešnik. Svoje potrebe naša zemlja podmiruje uglavnom uvozom i svake godine se odvaja nekoliko desetina miliona dolara za uvoz plodova lešnika. Međutim, kod nas postoje povoljni ekološki, pa i ekonomski uslovi za gajenje pitomih lešnika. Sa racionalnim korišćenjem zemljišnog kapaciteta, možemo se osloboditi uvoza lešnika sa velikom perspektivom da postanemo značajni izvoznici.So far, in the development of agriculture, especially fruit, it can be said that the least attention paid nut fruit species, which includes hazelnut. Our land settled mainly in import and annually tens of millions of dollars are allocated for importing hazelnuts. However, we have very good ecological and economic conditions for growing cultivated hazelnuts. With rational use of land capacity, we can get rid of import hazelnuts with the promise to become significant exporters.
From the economic point of view, the favorable environmental conditions and with relatively modest economic investment relative to other types of fruit trees, nut gives good yields, and hence a huge contribution. Hazelnut fruit is widely used in both the food industry and household, as well as confectionary industry, where the core of hazelnuts is used as the raw material for making creams and has an excellent flavor with aromas of cocoa. In addition to these uses, the fruit of hazel is used in a precise and aerospace industries, painting, cosmetics and others. The hazelnut fruit has great nutritional value and on that basis has the most important place in relation to other types of fruit trees. Hazelnut core contains a high percentage of high quality and easily digestible nutrients such as protein, fat, sugar, vitamins (A, B, and E) and minerals and other bioactive substances.
When we talk about the importance of hazelnuts, it should be noted a very important development in areas with favorable environmental conditions for its development and that is the use of culture erosion field, as hazelnut has a shallow root system that binds land and on abandoned steep terrain can play an important role in the reorientation of the land and hiring labor to care and harvest the fruit hazelnut.
With rising living standards especially in advanced industrial countries, the market consumes more fruits of hazelnut. Therefore, a number of European countries (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, France, and Russia) that have favorable environmental conditions for growing hazelnuts, recently significantly increased areas under plantations of hazelnut. These countries along with the United States produce 90% of world production.
Hazel has a very high success rate, and due to high energy and low prices as well as the shortage on the world market, many countries are trying to grow the hazel tree plantations over large areas. In our country, several hazelnut plantations were built that are designed for industrial and household use. In Takovo, hazelnut is the main raw material. This plant has so far imported hazelnuts and raised it’s plantation.
However, due to deficiency of suitable grounds around, it is necessary to raise plantations of hazelnut throughout the country in order to minimize imports. Just to satisfy Takovo’s processing capacities it is necessary to raise at least 7,000 hectares of hazelnut plantations. The continuous increase in the consumption of hazelnuts in the world points to the existence of broad prospects for exports.
Under natural conditions, hazelnut grows mainly on limestone substrate up to about 1500 meters above sea level. Also in cultures, hazelnuts can breed up to 600 meters in conditions where other fruit varieties and other crops provide less economic impact. Hazelnut requires light and heat to the lowest possible annual and daily temperature amplitude. Average annual air temperature should be above the 9:50 C and annual rainfall exceeding 1000 mm. In conditions of severe frosts attention should be paid to the preparation of pollinators that are resistant to low temperatures ie. that do not bloom at the time of the possible occurrence of frost. Hazelnuts are planted in loose, moist, deep permeable soil which should not be sour.