Hazelnut plantations forming
Hazelnut plantation planning and fencing
Hazelnut plantations should be fenced with barbed wire 1.5 meters in height with 7 rows wire, to prevent the intrusion of unwanted visitors and animals. Poles should be made of wattle length of 2.2 m. It is necessary first to remove the old individual trees, shrubs, stones, and remove the rest of the roots, which prevent the possibility of harmful microorganisms. After clearing make sure to level the planning area in the order for easier execution of subsequent mechanized and manual work.
Trenching soil - making terraces
In order to ensure water-air and heat regime for normal development of the root system, it is necessary to trench to a depth of 50 cm. Trenching should be done 2 to 3 months before planting hazelnut so the land can sink around crown parts and thus favoring the formation of flower buds. You should remove the sprouts that emerge from the ground. Hazel gives a stronger fruit on one year shoots exceeding 10 cm in length. Should over time (usually 10 to 12 years) the crown become congested it is necessary to thin it down. The process of rejuvenation should begin shortly before it’s absolutely necessary and to perform it with 1/5 of a year so as to ensure continuity in the production of fruits of hazel, because rejuvenated trees do not give, in the the early years, a full fruit.
The choice of varieties
Taking into account climate, soil and economic and organizational conditions and the possibility of processing and marketing of hazelnut, you need to choose the most suitable varieties. Main focus is to cultivate a native varieties for industrial processing and combined varieties traits that can be used for industrial and for fresh consumption, and also as a pollinator of main varieties. Planting will be done with a well-rooted plants. Hazelnut is typically a self pollinating plant, and the plantation must include more varieties. It is believed that these three varieties (Roman, Halski, Istrian) are ideal for joint production: Halski gin 55%, Roman 35%, 10% Istrian long. The largest yield is after eight years. Adult tree can produce up to 10-15 kg of fruit.
The planting of hazelnut and maintenance
The planting distance
Based on the proposed varieties it can be seen that they are mainly varieties which are mostly medium lush, so based on that the distance of seedlings is determined. It is recommended to plant at a distance of 4 meters between rows and between the terrace (where it is possible even greater distance due to different slope) and 3 meters between plants. Rows should preferably have a north-south direction for better illumination.
Time and manner of planting
The most suitable time for planting hazelnut is in autumn, because the root system has significant activity during the winter. It is not rare for hazelnut to flourish in February, under favorable weather conditions. Considering that terraces are made, by pushing and stretching the thick layer of soil with subsequent plowing, there is no need to dig holes in the classic sense. After preparation of soil, perform measuring and marking the places for planting. After that pits are digged, deep enough and wide enough to place root system. Care should be taken that the seedlings from the time of removal from the trap to the planting do not stay more than an hour uncovered to avoid drying the hair roots that are very sensitive. Since the plants are placed in a pit on a depth at which one was in the nursery area, over the hair roots a layer of fine earth is placed (10 to 15 cm). This land is stepped on and over it again, another layer of earth is placed. If the soil is prepared without trenching but ordinary plowing, it is necessary to dig a hole the size of 60x60 cm.
Forming the shape of crown and pruning of Hazelnut
Crown system should be established in the form of three branch system - branches that depart from one place. In the spring of the first year after planting, the trees are trimmed at 30 cm. above the ground in order to foster the outbreak of two to three offshoots that will form the future shape of the crown to form three branch system. In the second year after planting the best secondary branch is selected, which follows the further growth of the shoots shortened to equalize the amount of growth. In the coming years unnecessary branches are removed. The goal is to provide enough sunlight in all fruiting. From the fifth year onwards, it is considered that the nut has entered in the full yielding potential. Hazelnuts from year 7 to 15 can give yield per tree from 3 to 5 kg, and from year 15 to 25 from 5 to 10 kg per tree. Fertilizer doses depends on the results of the analysis of hazelnut leaf and soil in the plantation. Land in the plantation is maintained in a state of barren fallow discing and herbicide application. The destruction of shoots is done by mechanical or chemical means.
Harvesting should be done as late as possible, at the stage of maximum physiological maturity. For the hazel tree the characteristic is that all the fruits on one tree do not ripen at the same time. That is why waiting for the fruits to reach their physiological maturity is needed and that's when the shell is easily separated from the fruit and the fruit massively starts to fall to the ground. Then the trees should be shaken with a previously placed sheet under them.
Drying of fruits
Drying is a measure that needs to be applied, otherwise mold growth and decay of fruit may occur. During the harvest, one part of the fruit will fall along with the shell. The shell contains much more water so it should be removed. The fruits that are harvested along with the shell that cannot be manually removed, needs to dry 6 to 8 days in the sun with frequent stirring. At this point 80% of dry fruits will be separated from the shell, and the rest of the fruits have to dry additionally. Should shell remain in some of the fruit, such fruits are placed in the storage area in a layer of about 30 cm, and there remain 10 to 12 days. During that time, they are constantly mixed in order to speed up the drying, and thus separating shell. All this should be seen as a problem, so harvesting should be done when the fruits are at full maturity. When all the fruits are cleaned, then they are dried in the sun for two to three days or in a special oven until their moisture reaches 8-10%. It is believed that the temperature of 32-34oC is sufficient for optimal drying. Well dried fruits can be kept 2 to 3 years. However, it is better not to keep more than a year as they lose weight and color, and sometimes due to its high moisture content and can be rancid.
Storing fruit hazelnut
Storing is necessary if the manufacturer after drying is not able to immediately sell the fruits of hazelnut. In this case the nut must be stored in areas that need to be dry and illuminated. In wet areas hazelnut fruit die rapidly, get moldy and therefore lose weight and quality. At the appropriate storage space hazelnut fruits should be stretched in thin layers and occasionally mixed so that they would not receive an unpleasant odor. It is recommended to burn brimstone from time to time in the warehouse to destroy certain fungi, and also to keep quicklime which reduces the humidity in the room. Warehouse floor needs to be made of concrete, previously isolated from moisture. Above concrete dry planks should be placed. The walls should be plastered from the outside and the inside. The room should have an electric fan that will remove the excess moisture. The fan should be set at 30 cm from the edge of the ceiling. Electric heaters should be installed. The number and size of the heaters will depend on the size of the keeping area or on the amount of hazelnut which is kept. Heaters should have thermostat, and serve to maintain the temperature of heat storage at 30oC. The thermostat is set at a height of 1 meter above the floor. For good handling and movement of workers in the warehouse, warehouse space should be divided into boxes. One box should have 6m2, and the space between them should be the width of 1 m, which is used for movement of workers and carrying out all manipulation tasks.